A tree’s life is hard. It must stand against wind, hail and ice. A multitude of pests wait to consume it. To live decades, maybe even centuries, the tree must be tough. To protect itself, a tree will wrap itself, inside and out, in protective clothing. It has to. When environmental problems or pests come to damage it, the tree must stay still and take whatever comes. Life conspires to kill trees. They try to survive by using a unique defensive system. Actually, a tree has a double-edged defensive system to deal with the environment – one part passive and the other active. The passive system is composed of wooden walls made from strong, complex materials. These include cellulose fibers, which are made of sugars so tightly welded together that few living organisms on earth have the enzymes to break them apart. Another material in wood is like epoxy glue. Called lignin, it holds the cellulose fibers close together. Lignin is composed of complex chemical building blocks, each connected in a different way to each other. Again, only a few decay organisms can degrade lignin. Very few living things can decay both cellulose and lignin. Cellulose and lignin are the main walls, floors and ceilings of individual cells and groups of cells. These wooden cell barriers prevent or slow pests and decay from rampantly consuming the tree. As cells age and die toward the middle of the tree, chemical reactions biologically strengthen the wooden walls. Old cells generate a number of toxic materials in their dying gasps. These materials slow pest and decay organisms. The active defensive system of a tree includes special biological poisons it makes when injured. It also includes a host of blocking, plugging and sealing compounds. The tree’s active defenses try to slow the spread of pests and decay by producing toxins dangerous to living things. Some of these toxins are dangerous to humans at the correct dose. Of all the materials the tree makes to protect itself, one of the most versatile and effective is suberin. Suberin is a waxy waterproofer and wooden wall primer. Lightweight and low-density, it is made of many similar building blocks the tree piles together. Chemically, suberin is a complex polyester. The tree can make it wherever it needs it to block passages or seal off areas. The tree also uses suberin as a passive defense, like an overcoat. That’s because prevention remains the best way for a tree to defend itself from infection or injury. So the tree surrounds itself with the protective polyester suberin. People may know polyesters as a clothing fiber. But trees produce them to stem the tide of invading pests and decay. Suberin is one of the most effective barrier or wall materials in a tree. You can see it every day as bark. Bark is composed of many things. It includes a large portion of suberin to shield and protect the living portions of the tree. Unfortunately, unthinking or unknowing humans can easily damage these bark overcoats. Don’t be one of those careless humans. Support your local trees and their important, polyester overcoats.
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Renewables Now:Polish energy group Enea SA said on Tuesday it will install up to 30 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity for a local coal mine in which it is a majority shareholder.The solar power plants will generate electricity for the Bogdanka coal mine in the Lublin region of southeastern Poland, with their output to be sold under a power purchase agreement (PPA). Once up and running, the installations will be able to produce around 30,000 MWh of electricity annually. They will cover a total area of 55ha (136 acres).Enea is the majority shareholder in Lubelski Wegiel Bogdanka. Its CEO Miroslaw Kowalik said in a news conference a week ago that the utility will look to keep the size of its installed power capacity but will rather bet on more renewables. According to a Reuters report, the state-run company owns 6.3 GW of power generation assets, of which 443 MW use renewable energy.More: Enea to power Polish coal mine with 30 MW of solar PV Polish energy company Enea to run Bogdanka coal mine with solar power
Our sports ReporterGUWAHATI: Star Sporting and Royals Club won their respective matches in the GSA Second Division Cricket League held at the Latasil ground here today. In the first game Star sporting defeated ESPA by three wickets. In the other game, Royals Club registered five wickets victory over Ambari United.Also Read: Gauhati Town Club, Royals Club win in T20 Ankurjyoti Challenge Cricket Also Watch: Six-mile to Ganeshguri Road Closed due to Overbridge construction; Public inconvenienced.
Port Elizabeth: South Africa leveled its three-match T20I series against Australia with a 12-run win in the second match in Port Elizabeth on Sunday. Captain Quinton de Kock smashed 70 off 47 balls while Lungi Ngidi took three wickets as the Proteas leveled the series 1-1.Opener David Warner was unbeaten on 67 off 56 balls at the end of the chase but Australia was 146/6 in reply to South Africa’s 158/4. Ngidi gave South Africa the breakthrough by dismissing Australian captain Aaron Finch in the fifth over.Warner and Steve Smith were then unable to accelerate the run rate and the latter eventually fell for 29 to Dwaine Pretorius.Warner looked to shift gears but hardly found a partner at the other end with Alex Carey, Mitchell Marsh, Matthew Wade, and Ashton Agar all falling without troubling the scorecard too much.South Africa won the toss and chose to bat first. While the first over produced just four runs, De Kock got the hosts off to a flier after that and they were 59/0 at the end of the powerplay. De Kock had scored 43 by then but Kane Richardson got Australia the breakthrough in the seventh over with Reeza Hendricks hitting the third ball of the over straight to deep square.De Kock continued to chip away with former captain Faf Du Plessis and later Rassie Van der Dussen at the other end. Van der Dussen carried on before being dismissed by Richardson and South Africa were 158/4 at the end of the 20 overs.Brief scores: South Africa 158/4 (Quinton de Kock 70, Rassie Van Der Dussen 37; Kane Richardson 2/21) vs Australia 146/6 (David Warner 67 n.o., Steve Smith 29; Lungi Ngidi 3/41). IANSAlso Read: ‘Warner, Smith had a great dress rehearsal for South Africa tour in Eng’Also Watch: Assam government to provide arsenic-free drinking water in river island Majuli
Cristiano Ronaldo has taken to Twitter to dispel rumours that he is set to extend his current contract with Real Madrid.Reports in Spain on Thursday suggested the Portugal international is close to accepting an offer which would keep him with the Liga club until 2018, while club president Florentino Perez insisted that the forward wants to stay.However, Ronaldo says none of the claims are accurate.“All the news about my renewal with Real Madrid are false,” he said via his Twitter official account.The 2008 Ballon d’Or winner has been heavily linked with a move away from the Santiago Bernabeu in recent weeks, with big-spending Monaco said to be lining up an €100 million mega-money offer.Ronaldo, whose contract with Madrid is set to expire in 2015, has long been reported to be unhappy with his current deal with los Blancos, and would see his earnings considerably improved if he were to secure a move to the Principality-based club. The 28-year-old has also been linked with a return to former club Manchester United, though the Premier League champions would be unable to match the reputed €20 million annual salary on offer from the Ligue 1 club.
FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The Golf Fore the Cure ladies golf tournament at Lakepoint Golf Club was a phenomenal success last weekend.Annette Reader won the tournament’s top prize after an impressive round, shooting a 12-over 84.Tournament organiser Sam Warren says that the group was able to raise close to $5,000 for the Canadian Breast Cancer Society at last year’s tournament. Last Thursday, Warren said that preliminary statistics showed that the group was on track to nearly double their fundraising tally from last year, saying that the group was close to the $10,000 mark. Yesterday, Warren confirmed that the tournament actually raised over $12,000 for breast cancer research.- Advertisement –
“The credibility of South Africa being ranked as one of the top emerging economies in terms of its ease of doing business has a significant impact on its competitiveness as a country with which investors would want to do business in the future,” he said. Announced by the World Bank in Washington on 4 November, the Ease of Doing Business Index is created by the international financial institution, using empirical research to show the effect of improving regulations on economic growth. Source: Brand South Africa “In contrast to this, South Africa lost ground in areas such as starting a business, registering a company and trading across borders.” Within the World Bank’s latest index, this holds true. In areas such as investor protection, South Africa outperformed the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) averages in all four pillars. This includes extent of disclosure, extent of direct liability, shareholder suits and investor protection itself. Higher rankings indicate better, usually simpler, regulations for businesses and stronger protection of property rights. Consistent ratings as an investment market as well as a strong ranking against emerging markets – specifically the BRIC nations of Brazil, Russia, India and China – underpin South Africa’s performance in the World Bank’s latest Ease of Doing Business Index. 18 November 2010 Matola added that South Africa’s role as an emerging market which can compete comparatively with some of the BRIC countries and act as a credible connector to the 1-billion consumers on the continent had been boosted by the recent results, where all four BRIC nations lost ground, and where sub-Saharan Africa made the greatest improvements. “As with other indices issued of late, South Africa has not lost place as a result of declining scores, but rather as a result of other economies improving at a more rapid rate,” Brand South Africa CEO Miller Matola said following the release of the latest results. Matola said that Brand South Africa would continue to prioritise efforts to promote the country’s reputation as a globally competitive investment destination, guided by indices such as the World Bank’s Doing Business Index and others. Globally competitive investment destination The index is meant to measure regulations directly affecting businesses, and does not directly measure more general conditions such as a country’s proximity to large markets, quality of infrastructure, inflation or crime. South Africa lost two places in the latest index results, and is now placed 34 out of 183 economies. “Our consistent ratings are underpinned by improvements in areas such as closing a business, where we are up three places to 74; as well as in enforcing contracts, where we improved our position to 85 from 86,” Matola said. “Studies and reports such as these are key to our understanding and efforts to position and profile South Africa as a trade, investment and tourism destination of choice.” “It is critical that we align all the recent indices with our own strategic priorities and measure the direct impact of our efforts in these regions on a market-by-market basis,” he said. This article was first published by MediaClubSouthAfrica.com – get free high-resolution photos and professional feature articles from Brand South Africa’s media service.
Touch Football Australia (TFA) is proud to announce its four Youth and five Masters teams that will compete in the 2013 Super Trans Tasman Series against New Zealand in Auckland early next year.The Australian Youth (18’s Boys and Girls and 20’s Boys and Girls) and Masters (Men’s and Women’s 30’s, Men’s 40’s, Men’s 50’s and Senior Mixed) teams have been announced today following the 2012 X-Blades National Youth Championships and State of Origin Series in late September. The Open (Men’s, Women’s and Mixed) teams will be announced in the coming month. The three-test series sees the fierce rivals meet for the first time since 2011 in the Youth divisions and the first time since 2010 in the Masters divisions, with some divisions having also played in the 2011 World Cup (Men’s 30’s, Men’s 40’s and Senior Mixed). The rivalry between the two nations is as fierce as ever following the reintroduction of the Trans Tasman Series concept in 2009. Australia is the current Trans Tasman title holders in the Youth, Open and Masters categories as well as the current World Cup champions after their success in 2011. TFA wishes to congratulate the following players on selection in the Australian Youth and Masters teams: 18’s Girls Shenae Ciesiolka Chloe Crotty Danielle Davis Hannah Dyball Jordan Lovejoy Yasmin Meakes Caitlin Moran Laura Peattie Evania Pelitte-Denny Madison Regan Sam Rodgers Brea Singman Tanisha Stanton Kim Sue See 18’s Boys James Baartz Paddy Coelho Adam Clune Lachlan Hoch Jonathan Huskins Jed Ibbotson Jackson Luke Theo Majid Rob McCarthy Jason Norford Lachlan Pierce Josh Rozairo Ciaran Toner James Wester 20’s Girls Madison Absolum Rachel Beck Anna Hicks Tracy Hill Jenna Hitch Kate McCarthy Melissa Peters Rebecca Mounsey Catherine Sargent Rylie Seamark Simone Smith Maddison Studdon Brooke Walker Toni Wells 20’s Boys Jayden Benbow Sam Brisby Scott Bundy Scott Daley Josh Gillard Matthew Goodrope Cohan Guerra Jordan Marshall Madalitso Masache Jake Pickering Simon Lang Adam Pryde Oscar Sanft Wesley Sefuiva Caidyn Wynyard Women’s 30’s Samantha Cannon Kirsten Friend Brooke James Trish McCarthy Cristie McTaggart Nicole Mitchell Alison Plath Amy Smith Holly Smith Erin Taylor Leasha Thouard Fiona Williams Sharyn Williams Mel Woodward Men’s 30’s Matt Curran Adam Fahim Philip Gyemore Mick Irvine Chris Johnson Aaron Jones Warren Lorger Brad Mitchell Dean Murphy Jason Scharenguivel Gavin Shuker Garry Sonda Dean Taylor Elijah Van der Kwast Men’s 40’s Joe Biskup Christian Browne Anthony Dudeck Barry Gibson Robin Kildare Mick Lennon Troy Morgan Gerrard O’Keeffe Jarrad Reardon David Roberts Justin Robson John Samin Robert Sinclair-Smith Darren Swain Men’s 50’s Amir Ayoub Don Baartz Shane Beale David Cheung Jeff Cheung Michael Sproule Anthony Ryan Brett Gillard Tim Kitchingham Garry Lawless David McDonald William McLean Mike Thoars Greg Young Senior Mixed Amanda Hollis Hayley McDonald Kristi Miller Karen Short Kim Solman Jade Steedman Derrick Cant William Chan Brad Lugg Stephen Prince Joshua Sparke Manu Wakely David Walsh Shannon Warren Related Files2013_stt_youth___masters_team_announcement_website-pdfRelated LinksAussie Teams Announced
Touch Football Australia extends its deepest condolences to Federation of International Touch (FIT) President, Erick Acker and his family following the passing of his mother. The thoughts of the Touch Football community are with Erick and his family during this time. Related LinksCondolences to Acker Family
Everton, Crystal Palace move for Valencia striker Michy Batshuayiby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveValencia striker Michy Batshuayi is being offered a return to England.On-loan at Valencia from Chelsea for the season, Batshuayi has been told coach Marcelino wants him to cut short his loan this month.The Belgium international would prefer to stay, though the Guardian says two Premier League clubs are now in contact about bringing him back to England.Everton and Crystal Palace are both keen, while Olympique Marseille are also watching developments.For their part, Valencia want to move on Batshuayi to free up a loan slot for Marcelino’s squad. TagsTransfersLoan MarketAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say